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World record in ultra-rapid data transmission


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The team of Professor Leuthold (right): David Hillerkuß, René Schmogrow, and pro-fessors Wolfgang Freude and Christian Koos (from right to left).
This is Professor Jürg Leuthold of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres.

Scientists of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) have suc-ceeded in encoding data at a rate of 26 terabits per second on a single laser beam, transmitting them over a distance of 50 km, and decoding them successfully. This is the largest data volume ever transported on a laser beam. The process developed by KIT allows to transmit the contents of 700 DVDs in one second only. The renowned journal “Nature Photonics” reports about this success in its latest issue (DOI: 10.1038/NPHOTON.2011.74). With this experiment, the KIT scientists in the team of Professor Jürg Leuthold beat their own record in high-speed data transmission of 2010, when they exceeded the magic limit of 10 terabits per sec-ond, i.e. a data rate of 10,000 billion bits per second. This success of the group is due to a new data decoding process. The opto-electric decoding method is based on initially purely optical calculation at highest data rates in order to break down the high data rate to smaller bit rates that can then be processed electrically. The initially optical reduction of the bit rates is required, as no electronic processing methods are available for a data rate of 26 terabits per second.

The team of Leuthold applies the so-called orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) for record data encoding. For many years, this process has been used successfully in mobile communi-cations. It is based on mathematical routines (Fast Fourier Trans-formation). “The challenge was to increase the process speed not only by a factor of 1000, but by a factor of nearly a million for data processing at 26 terabits per second,” explains Leuthold who is heading the Institutes of Photonics and Quantum Electronics and Microstructure Technology at KIT. “The decisive innovative idea was optical implementation of the mathematical routine.” Calculation in the optical range turned out to be not only extremely fast, but also highly energy-efficient, because energy is required for the laser and a few process steps only.

“Our result shows that physical limits are not yet exceeded even at extremely high data rates”, Leuthold says while having in mind the constantly growing data volume on the internet. In the opinion of Leuthold, transmission of 26 terabits per second confirms that even high data rates can be handled today, while energy consumption is minimized.

“A few years ago, data rates of 26 terabits per second were deemed utopian even for systems with many lasers.” Leuthold adds, “and there would not have been any applications. With 26 terabits per second, it would have been possible to transmit up to 400 million telephone calls at the same time. Nobody needed this at that time. Today, the situation is different.” Video transmissions predominate on the internet and require extremely high bit rates. The need is growing constantly. In communication networks, first lines with channel data rates of 100 gigabits per second (corresponding to 0.1 terabit per second) have already been taken into operation. Re-search now concentrates on developing systems for transmission lines in the range of 400 Gigabits/s to 1 Tbit/s. Hence, the Karlsruhe invention is ahead of the ongoing development. Companies and scientists from all over Europe were involved in the experimental implementation of ultra-rapid data transmission at KIT. Among them were members of the staff of Agilent and Micram Deutschland, Time-Bandwidth Switzerland, Finisar Israel, and the University of Southampton in Great Britain.

Source: Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres

Newly improved NIST reference material targets infant formula analysis

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Chemists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have issued a new certified reference material—a standardized sample backed by NIST—for determining the concentrations of vitamins, minerals and other nutrients in infant and adult nutritional formula and similar products. The new Standard Reference Material (SRM 1849) for Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula, represents a significant improvement over the now discontinued SRM 1846, Infant Formula, which had been offered since 1996. Proper nutrition is essential for proper development in infants; too much or too little of certain nutrients can be harmful or even fatal. According to NIST chemist Katherine Sharpless, infant formula is one of the most regulated food items in the United States. Manufacturers are bound by the Infant Formula Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-359) to test their formula to ensure that the nutrient levels conform to ranges and minimums as specified in the statute.

NIST researchers chose to replace the older SRM for a number of reasons. The process of obtaining NIST-certified values for a candidate reference material can be lengthy and expensive. When NIST first released SRM 1846, there were a number of other available reference materials that had certified values for elements, so NIST researchers did not measure those values in SRM 1846, publishing them only as “reference values” measured by other laboratories. (NIST does not certify values measured by other institutions.) Moreover, in 1996 NIST did not have in-house methods to certify values for fatty acids, vitamins D and K, and many water-soluble vitamins, so those, too, relied on the work of collaborating laboratories. As a result, NIST released SRM 1846 with only five certified values, 38 reference values and nine information values.

Foremost among the reasons that led to the decision to replace SRM 1846 was the fact that the material no longer presented the same analytical challenge as commercially available formulas. SRMs should ideally be no more and no less difficult to analyze than the material they are intended to simulate.

SRM 1849 is the culmination of NIST researchers’ efforts to expand and improve upon the previous material. The new SRM contains certified values for 43 nutrients, including vitamins, minerals and elements, and 43 reference values for amino acids and nucleotides. According to Sharpless, SRM 1849 is one of the most well-characterized food SRMs that NIST now produces.

NIST SRMs are intended to be used as controls in analytical chemical testing, and certified values simply describe what the SRM contains and are not intended to prescribe what a consumer product should contain. SRM 1849 does not conform to the Infant Formula Act of 1980 and is not intended for consumption.

Source: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

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Graphene exhibits bizarre new behavior well suited to electronic devices

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Graphene, a sheet of pure carbon heralded as a possible replacement for silicon-based semiconductors, has been found to have a unique and amazing property that could make it even more suitable for future electronic devices. Physicists at the University of California, Berkeley, and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have found that when graphene is stretched in a specific way it sprouts nanobubbles in which electrons behave in a bizarre way, as if they are moving in a strong magnetic field.

Specifically, the electrons within each nanobubble segregate into quantized energy levels instead of occupying energy bands, as in unstrained graphene. The energy levels are identical to those that an electron would occupy if it were moving in circles in a very strong magnetic field, as high as 300 tesla, which is bigger than any laboratory can produce except in brief explosions, said Michael Crommie, professor of physics at UC Berkeley and a faculty researcher at LBNL. Magnetic resonance imagers use magnets less than 10 tesla, while the Earth’s magnetic field at ground level is 31 microtesla.

“This gives us a new handle on how to control how electrons move in graphene, and thus to control graphene’s electronic properties, through strain,” Crommie said. “By controlling where the electrons bunch up and at what energy, you could cause them to move more easily or less easily through graphene, in effect, controlling their conductivity, optical or microwave properties. Control of electron movement is the most essential part of any electronic device.”

Crommie and colleagues report the discovery in the July 30 issue of the journal Science.

Aside from the engineering implications of the discovery, Crommie is eager to use this unusual property of graphene to explore how electrons behave in fields that until now have been unobtainable in the laboratory.

“When you crank up a magnetic field you start seeing very interesting behavior because the electrons spin in tiny circles,” he said. “This effect gives us a new way to induce this behavior, even in the absence of an actual magnetic field.”

Among the unusual behaviors observed of electrons in strong magnetic fields are the quantum Hall effect and the fractional quantum Hall effect, where at low temperatures electrons also fall into quantized energy levels.

The new effect was discovered by accident when a UC Berkeley postdoctoral researcher and several students in Crommie’s lab grew graphene on the surface of a platinum crystal. Graphene is a one atom-thick sheet of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal pattern, like chicken wire. When grown on platinum, the carbon atoms do not perfectly line up with the metal surface’s triangular crystal structure, which creates a strain pattern in the graphene as if it were being pulled from three different directions.

The strain produces small, raised triangular graphene bubbles 4 to 10 nanometers across in which the electrons occupy discrete energy levels rather than the broad, continuous range of energies allowed by the band structure of unstrained graphene. This new electronic behavior was detected spectroscopically by scanning tunneling microscopy. These so-called Landau levels are reminiscent of the quantized energy levels of electrons in the simple Bohr model of the atom, Crommie said.

The appearance of a pseudomagnetic field in response to strain in graphene was first predicted for carbon nanotubes in 1997 by Charles Kane and Eugene Mele of the University of Pennsylvania. Nanotubes are a rolled up form of graphene.

Within the last year, however, Francisco Guinea of the Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid in Spain, Mikhael Katsnelson of Radboud University of Nijmegen, the Netherlands, and A. K. Geim of the University of Manchester, England predicted what they termed a pseudo quantum Hall effect in strained graphene . This is the very quantization that Crommie’s research group has experimentally observed. Boston University physicist Antonio Castro Neto, who was visiting Crommie’s laboratory at the time of the discovery, immediately recognized the implications of the data, and subsequent experiments confirmed that it reflected the pseudo quantum Hall effect predicted earlier.

“Theorists often latch onto an idea and explore it theoretically even before the experiments are done, and sometimes they come up with predictions that seem a little crazy at first. What is so exciting now is that we have data that shows these ideas are not so crazy,” Crommie said. “The observation of these giant pseudomagnetic fields opens the door to room-temperature ‘straintronics,’ the idea of using mechanical deformations in graphene to engineer its behavior for different electronic device applications.”

Crommie noted that the “pseudomagnetic fields” inside the nanobubbles are so high that the energy levels are separated by hundreds of millivolts, much higher than room temperature. Thus, thermal noise would not interfere with this effect in graphene even at room temperature. The nanobubble experiments performed in Crommie’s laboratory, however, were performed at very low temperature.

Normally, electrons moving in a magnetic field circle around the field lines. Within the strained nanobubbles, the electrons move in circles in the plane of the graphene sheet, as if a strong magnetic field has been applied perpendicular to the sheet even when there is no actual magnetic field. Apparently, Crommie said, the pseudomagnetic field only affects moving electrons and not other properties of the electron, such as spin, that are affected by real magnetic fields.

Source: University of California – Berkeley

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Quantum fluctuations are key in superconductors

  • New experiments on a recently discovered class of iron-based superconductors suggest that the ability of their electrons to conduct electricity without resistance is directly connected with the magnetic properties of those electrons. Results of the experiments appear in the Jan. 8 issue of Physical Review Letters. The tests, which were carried out by a team of U.S. and Chinese physicists, shed light on the fundamental nature of high-temperature superconductivity, said Rice physicist Qimiao Si, a co-author on the study.
  • If better understood, high-temperature superconductors could be used to revolutionize electric generators, MRI scanners, high-speed trains and other devices.
  • In the study, scientists from Rice University, the University of Tennessee, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the Chinese Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Physics and Renmin University in Beijing examined several iron-arsenide compounds. These are the “undoped” parents of the iron “pnictides” (pronounced: NICK-tides), a class of materials that were found to be high-temperature superconductors in 2008.
  • The experiments set out to test theoretical predictions that Si and collaborators published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences last March. They predicted that varying the size of some atoms in the parent compounds could allow physicists to tune the material’s quantum fluctuations. These types of fluctuations can create tipping points called magnetic “quantum critical points,” a state that exists when a material is at the cusp of transitioning from one quantum phase to another.
  • Using neutron-scattering facilities at NIST and ORNL, the team bombarded the materials with neutrons to decipher their structural and magnetic properties. The tests, which supported Si’s theoretical predictions, determined that the strength of magnetic order in the materials was reduced when arsenic atoms were replaced with slightly smaller phosphorus atoms.
  • “We found the first direct evidence that a magnetic quantum critical point exists in these materials,” Si said.
  • The results were made possible by the efforts of Nanlin Wang, a physicist from the Chinese Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Physics, and his research group. They created a series of samples with varying amounts of phosphorous substituting for arsenic.
  • The discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in copper-oxide ceramics in 1986 led physicists to realize that quantum effects in electronic materials were far more complex than anticipated. One of these effects is quantum criticality. Criticality occurs near a tipping point that a material goes through when it changes phases. Many phase changes — like ice melting into water — occur because of thermal fluctuations. But quantum criticalities and quantum phase changes arise solely from quantum fluctuations.
  • “Our finding of a quantum critical point in iron pnictides opens the door for new avenues of research into this important class of materials,” said University of Tennessee/ORNL physicist Pengcheng Dai, a neutron scattering specialist.
  • Si said, “The evidence from this study bolsters the hypothesis that high-temperature superconductivity in the iron pnictides originates from electronic magnetism. This should be contrasted to conventional low-temperature superconductivity, which is caused by ionic vibrations.”
  • SourceRice University

Magnet lab research suggests novel superconductor

Superconductivity has perplexed, astounded and inspired scientists ever since it was discovered in 1911. Now, in the latest of a century of surprises, researchers at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at Florida State University have discovered unusual properties in a novel superconducting material that point to an entirely new kind of superconductor. Frank Hunte, a postdoctoral associate at the lab’s Applied Superconductivity Center (ASC), working with David Larbalestier, Alex Gurevich and Jan Jaroszynski, and colleagues in David Mandrus’ group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee, discovered surprising magnetic properties in the new superconductors that suggest they may have very powerful applications Ñ from improved MRI machines and research magnets to a new generation of superconducting electric motors, generators and power transmission lines. The research also adds to the long list of mysteries surrounding superconductivity, providing evidence that the new materials, which scientists are calling “doped rare earth iron oxyarsenides,” develop superconductivity in quite a new way, as detailed in the latest issue of the prestigious journal Nature.
Though research on this substance is very much in its early stages, scientists are talking excitedly of “promise” and “potential.”
“What one would like is a greater selection of superconductors, operating at higher temperatures, being cheaper, possibly being more capable of being made into round wires,” said Larbalestier, director of the ASC. “Iron and arsenic, both inherently cheap materials, are key constituents of this totally new class of superconductors. We’re just fascinated. It’s superconductivity in places you never thought of.”
Superconductivity can be thought of as “frictionless” electricity. In conventional electricity, heat is generated by friction as electrons (electric charge carriers) collide with atoms and impurities in the wire. This heating effect is good for appliances such as toasters or irons, but not so good for most other applications that use electricity. In superconductors, however, electrons glide unimpeded between atoms without friction. If scientists and engineers ever harness this phenomenon at or near room temperature in a practical way, untold billions of dollars could be saved on energy costs.
That’s a big if. Superconductivity, though promising, is still impractical in routine engineering use because it requires a very cold environment attainable only with the help of expensive cryogens such as liquid helium or liquid nitrogen. Past discoveries have helped scientists inch their way up the thermometer, from superconductors requiring minus 452 degrees Fahrenheit (or 4.2 Kelvin) to newer materials that superconduct at around minus 200 degrees F (138 K) Ñ still frigid, but substantially warmer and more practical.
Early this year, Japanese scientists who had been developing iron-based superconducting compounds for several years finally tweaked the recipe just right with a pinch of arsenic. The result: a superconductor, also featuring oxygen and the rare earth element lanthanum, performing at a promising minus 413 degrees F (26 K). The presence of iron in the material was another scientific stunner: Because it’s ferromagnetic, iron stays magnetized after exposure to a magnetic field, and any current generates such a field. As a rule, magnetism’s effect on superconductivity is not to enhance it, but to kill it.
Teams of scientists quickly got busy synthesizing and studying various iron oxyarsenides. Larbalestier, eager to get in on the research, secured a sample from colleagues at Oak Ridge. His objective: Put it in the magnet lab’s 45-tesla Hybrid magnet to see how high a magnetic field the new material could tolerate. (Tesla is a unit of magnetic field strength; the Earth’s magnetic field is one twenty thousandth of a tesla.)
Hunte and his colleagues thought the world-record Hybrid magnet would be more than sufficient to test the field tolerance limits of the new material. They thought wrong: The iron oxyarsenide kept superconducting all the way up to 45 tesla, far past the point at which other superconductors become normal conductors.
A high tolerance for magnetic field is one of three key properties researchers hope for in superconductors. Also desirable are the abilities to operate at relatively high temperatures and in the presence of high electrical currents. Superconductors are used to make MRI and research magnets, and now they are being tested in a new generation of superconducting electric motors, generators, transformers and power transmission lines. Today, the most powerful superconducting magnet generates a field of about 26 tesla. If a superconductor could be found that tolerates a higher current and field, it may make possible more powerful magnets, opening up vast new research areas to scientists and power applications.
Hunte’s experiment yielded other tantalizing findings. Although scientists discovered half a century ago that superconducting electrons enter the “Cooper pair” state, pairing with opposite spin and momentum, magnetism was always thought to break such pairs. Now the archetypal magnetic atom, iron, is a key part of this new class of high temperature superconductors. Scientists have yet another puzzle to probe.
“So far,” said Hunte, “based on both theoretical calculations and what we’re seeing from the experiments, it seems likely that this is a completely different mechanism for superconductivity.”
Hunte is quick to say the group’s research barely scratches the surface.
“The field is completely open. No one knows where this is going to go,” Hunte said. “If it’s found that these materials can support high current densities, then they could be tremendously useful.”

Source: Florida State University

Researchers create functioning synapse using carbon nanotubes

Engineering researchers the University of Southern California have made a significant breakthrough in the use of nanotechnologies for the construction of a synthetic brain. They have built a carbon nanotube synapse circuit whose behavior in tests reproduces the function of a neuron, the building block of the brain. The team, which was led by Professor Alice Parker and Professor Chongwu Zhou in the USC Viterbi School of Engineering Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering, used an interdisciplinary approach combining circuit design with nanotechnology to address the complex problem of capturing brain function.
In a paper published in the proceedings of the IEEE/NIH 2011 Life Science Systems and Applications Workshop in April 2011, the Viterbi team detailed how they were able to use carbon nanotubes to create a synapse.
Carbon nanotubes are molecular carbon structures that are extremely small, with a diameter a million times smaller than a pencil point. These nanotubes can be used in electronic circuits, acting as metallic conductors or semiconductors.
“This is a necessary first step in the process,” said Parker, who began the looking at the possibility of developing a synthetic brain in 2006. “We wanted to answer the question: Can you build a circuit that would act like a neuron? The next step is even more complex. How can we build structures out of these circuits that mimic the function of the brain, which has 100 billion neurons and 10,000 synapses per neuron?”
Parker emphasized that the actual development of a synthetic brain, or even a functional brain area is decades away, and she said the next hurdle for the research centers on reproducing brain plasticity in the circuits.
The human brain continually produces new neurons, makes new connections and adapts throughout life, and creating this process through analog circuits will be a monumental task, according to Parker.
She believes the ongoing research of understanding the process of human intelligence could have long-term implications for everything from developing prosthetic nanotechnology that would heal traumatic brain injuries to developing intelligent, safe cars that would protect drivers in bold new ways.
For Jonathan Joshi, a USC Viterbi Ph.D. student who is a co-author of the paper, the interdisciplinary approach to the problem was key to the initial progress. Joshi said that working with Zhou and his group of nanotechnology researchers provided the ideal dynamic of circuit technology and nanotechnology.
“The interdisciplinary approach is the only approach that will lead to a solution. We need more than one type of engineer working on this solution,” said Joshi. “We should constantly be in search of new technologies to solve this problem.”

Source: University of Southern California

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Small robot fish powered by solid polymer fuel cell

At FC Expo 2010, Osaka City University exhibited a small robot fish, whose swimming is powered by a cylindrical solid-polymer fuel cell called Power Tube, developed by the University. This robot fish is 100 mm long, and it has a joint at its front end to propel it forward. The joint is driven by a magnetic actuator. The fish can also dive and rise by changing the center of gravity of its sinker device, so it appears to swim just like a real fish. This small fish robot contains a lithium polymer battery. When a fuel cell is used, the fuel cell is installed on a power supply buoy. In the lab, there’s also a prototype robot with a built-in fuel cell. This uses hydrogen peroxide to supply oxygen even under water. The aim is to enable the robot to swim continuously for three days. The robot fish’s motion can be programmed, and more complicated motions can also be specified. In the future, the research group is considering applications such as rescue work and marine resource surveys by building a camera into the robot.

 

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Lunchbox-based communication support system

A analysis accumulation at Ochanomizu University is alive on a arrangement to abutment advice aural families via lunchboxes.

In this system, anniversary lunchbox has a baby touchscreen PC, camera, microphone,and apostle congenital in. The agreeable starts up automatically back the lunchbox is opened.

“I anticipate bodies who accomplish arranged lunches feel all sorts of affections which may not consistently be announced to the bodies who eat the lunches. And conversely, addition bistro a arranged cafeteria ability appetite to say, “This is delicious,” or “Thank you for authoritative it.” But it’s not accessible to accord that affectionate of acknowledgment to the being who fabricated the lunch. So we’re suggesting this system, to abutment advice amid bodies who eat arranged lunches and bodies who accomplish them.”

“When the being authoritative the cafeteria opens the lunchbox in the morning, the arrangement starts up automatically, and annal the being authoritative the lunch. Back the box is closed, the recording stops automatically. Back the added being opens the lunchbox at assignment or school, the pictures recorded in the morning are apparent automatically. At the aforementioned time, the being bistro the cafeteria is recorded automatically. So back they booty the lunchbox home at night, and the added being opens it to ablution it, the video shows whether the cafeteria was eaten with a big smile, for example. So this arrangement supports advice amid bodies who accomplish arranged lunches and bodies who eat them.”

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Hydraulically propelled exploration robot

At the International Apprentice Exhibition 2009, the Kitagawa-Tsugoshi Lab at Tokyo Institute of Technology presented a hydraulically propelled analysis robot. The hydraulically propelled analysis apprentice is advised to chase for bodies trapped in bits at the arena of an blow or explosion. The new blazon of apprentice apparent actuality can chase central bits smoothly, by affective two plates in an alternating fashion. This apprentice has silver-colored ancillary plates and the anatomy consists of two parts, which are red and yellow. While one allotment of the anatomy supports the rubble, the added allotment pushes forward. When the two genitalia ability the aforementioned height, they about-face motions, so the apprentice can move advanced while aspersing any active movement of the rubble. A camera and mike absorbed to the advanced of the apprentice accomplish it accessible to adviser the bearings beneath the rubble.

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An Augmented Reality Game for Camera Projector Phones

With the miniaturization of projection technology the integration of tiny projection units, normally referred to as pico projectors, into mobile devices is not longer fiction. Integrated pico pro jectors in mobile devices could make mobile projection ubiquitous within the next few years. Mobile phones with integrated pico pro jectors soon will have the ability to project large-scale information onto any surfaces in the real world. By doing so the interaction space of the mobile device can be expanded to physical ob jects in the environment and this can support interaction concepts that are not even possible on modern desktop computers today. In this video, we explore the possibilities of camera projector phones with a mobile adaption of the Playstation 3
game LittleBigPlanet. The camera projector unit is used to augment the hand drawings of a user with an overlay displaying physical interaction of virtual ob jects with the real world. Players can sketch a 2D world on a sheet of paper or use an existing physical configuration of ob jects and let the physics engine simulate physical procedures in this world to achieve game goals.

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ARScope From The University of Tokyo

The Tachi-Kawakami Laboratory from the University of Tokyo alien new interface technology alleged ARScope at the Digital Content Expo 2008. ARScope is an interface acclimated to accomplish alloyed absoluteness application Augmented Reality. ARScope uses automatic technology to action a graphical angel ascribe by a camera and activity it in the advanced through a arch army projector. This technology differs from the arch army affectation that has been broadly acclimated in the accomplished because a projector is acclimated to activity an angel assimilate an article in the absolute world, so a basic angel can be superimposed on a absolute apple object. This technology differs from the arch army displays acclimated in the accomplished because it uses a projector to activity an angel assimilate a absolute apple object. The different affection of this technology is that it can be acclimated to blanket a basic angel on a absolute apple object.

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Gearturbine Project Atypical InFlow Thermodynamic Technology

The Gearturbine comes from the contemporary ecological essential global needs of a efficient power plant fueled motor engine.

-Power thrust by bar (tube); air, sea, land, power generation, work application.

-Have the same simple basic system of the “Aelopilie” Heron´s Steam Turbine device from Alexandria,

10-70 AD) one thousand nine hundred years ago. Because; the circular dynamic motion, with 2/Two Opposites power (polar position) lever, and is feeds from his axis center.

http://gearturbine.260mb.com/


*Gearturbine

A typical fueled turbine engine, state of the art. New thermodynamic technology. Top system.

-With Retrodynamic dextrogiro vs levogiro phenomenon effect. / Rotor-RPM VS InFlow / front to front “Collision-interaction” – inflow vs blades surface/(gear). Technical unique dynamic motion mode.

-Form-function wide cilindrical shape / continue kinetic inertia, positive tendence dynamic mass motion

-Non-waste parasitic looses system for: cooling, lubrication & combustion.

-Combustion 2Two (Inside dynamic) continue circular flames (like 2two opposite rockets, (at the same axis)).

-2 Two (very) long captive compression inflow propulsion conduits. start at were ends, in perfect shape balance.

-4 Turbos (rotary & translation motion) inside active.

-Mechanical direct 2two planetary gears thurst, inside in a bigger shell, total lever, polar position. (Big torque) (like the Ying Yang simbol concept).

-3 stages of inflow turbo compression before combustion; 1)1-Turbine, 2)2-Turbos 3)2-Turbos.

*The most innovative power plant engine project today. Higher efficient % percentage. Next trend wave toward global technological coming change.

Patent; Dic 1991 IMPI Mexico #197187 / Carlos Barrera. – Individual Designer – Inventor and project owner. / All Rights Reserved. Monterrey, NL, Mexico.